Introduction. Talking about history of Kyrgyzstan we are ready to make a short introduction about Kyrgyz people. History of Kyrgyzstan is extremely interesting and should be known by all. First we say that long time ago people in Kyrgyzstan had a nomadic way of life. They didn't create cities and towns with great castles to live. They were looking forward to preserve nature of Kyrgyzstan. Now during tours in Kyrgyzstan you have a great opportunity to feel that nomadic life by visiting yurt camps with our company. We suggest to rent a car and drive to all significant places related with history.
In ancient times people in Kyrgyzstan didn't have any means of notes and recordings, everything was going orally from generation to generation. They made scripts rather rarely just to make an accent on great events. It is known that Kyrgyz people have a history of 2000 years of existence. For the very first time people found out that there are Kyrgyz people in 201 BC. And to get closer to the history of Kyrgyzstan and people here it is advised to recognize eight periods of the country:
Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC). The period of 1 million years ago - 1 000 BC is known as prehistory and identifies the beginning of development of cultural life of Kyrgyzstan. The very great example of cultural development of Kyrgyzstan is the Rock Art Gallery in Cholpon Ata. This is considered to be the center of spiritual life of the Bronze Age. Ancient people used to celebrate different events here. The site presents 2000 images and petroglyphs on stones and rocks. These petroglyphs represent animals ancient people faced with in result of different circumstances: goats, bulls, horses, deer, camels, dogs. At the same time these images are the representation of everyday life, celebrations, like hunting, plowing, ritual dancing as well as , labyrinths, erotic scenes.
Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD). The period of 1 000 BC - 300 AD is known as ancient history when there was the first recording of the "Kyrgyz". This event goes back to 201 BC. Actually people in Kyrgyzstan became known thanks to Chinese historian Sima Tan. He created the chronicle "Historical notes" where he represented people of Kyrgyzstan among the five leading war with the Hunnu. Then in the 1st century BC there was a mentioning of Kyrgyzstan and locals again in Chinese chronicle Han-shu (History of Han) by historian Ban Gu. The historian identified the territory of the state of people of modern Kyrgyzstan. In accordance with modern investigation, ancient Kyrgyz people were living in the Eastern Turkestan, in the east from the territory of Kyrgyzstan we know now.
Turkic Era (500-1200). The period of 500-1200 is considered to be Turkic Era, somewhere between 6th and 13th centuries. This period is marked as very important as during these times people of Turkic-speaking tribes were in the process of changing their places of inhabitance of the Altai Mountains, moving to the region of Central Asia. This is the period of establishment of Turkic dynasties and their powers. Then there is no information about people of modern Kyrgyzstan during first six centuries AD. But then in the 7th century there is the establishment of the Kyrgyz Kaganate.
Travelling in Kyrgyzstan you will find out that the state was established in the South Siberia, Yenisei River. The leader of the people was the king Barsbek ajo. With the flow of time the Kyrgyz Empire was beginning from the west, Irtysh River to the east, the Big Khingan range and from the north, the Angara and Selenga Rivers to the south, the Gobi Desert. The territory of Kyrgyzstan and people of the country was investigated by the Russian and Soviet historian Barthold. He let the people know about the Great Kyrgyz Empire.
The Mongol Rule (1200-1400). The period of 1200-1400 is known as the Mongol Empire as the 13th century is the tragedy for people of Kyrgyzstan and whole Central Asia. According to historical notes, this is the period of Mongol invasion and conquering the territory of Central Asia by Genghis Khan. This is the time of development of Turkic culture. Yenisei Kyrgyz had to go under the powers of Genghiz Khan for several hundred years.
Long time ago people of modern Kyrgyzstan were considered to be pagans, but in the 12th-15th centuries started the period of adoption of Islam, the religion of Persian, Arab, and Turkic travellers of the Great Silk Road. But the period of adoption of Islam took a very long period and even in the 19th century there were reports of travellers in Kyrgyzstan about shamanistic traditions of the Kyrgyz.
Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800). The period of 1400-1800 is known as Kyrgyz consolidation, when since 15th century Kyrgyz people were migrating from south Siberia to the territory of Kyrgyzstan that we know now. Despite the fact of them to move to those places, there was no statehood of the Kyrgyz in 15th-19th centuries. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan you will find out that leaders of different tribes of ancient Kyrgyzstan were clashing with an aim to create a strong state of tribes of the Kyrgyz people. This was the so-called tribal system known to be actively used for four centuries. But there was another result, instead of the state there was created a system of politics and ethnic, where there were various tribes, which were independent from each other.
Russian Colonization (1770-1917). The period of 1770-1917 is known as Russian Colonization, the process of Kyrgyzstan to be under powers of the Russian Empire. The process of joining started when leaders of northern tribes were sent to Russia with an aim to protect from threats from other tribes and from tribes of Kyrgyzstan. People of Kyrgyzstan underwent difficulties and hostilities from China, Kokand and Kazakhs. And these attempts of conquering caused the people of northern Kyrgyzstan to find protection. And they saw Russia as a mean of their freedom. But the process of joining was going peacefully in the north of Kyrgyzstan, in the south people didn't want to be the part of Russia and were colonized forcefully. With new territories to emerge, there emerged administrative systems. And this is the period when people of Kyrgyzstan changed their nomadic way of life to agricultural and economic. But still there are a lot of nomads in Kyrgyzstan whom you have an opportunity to meet and find out a lot of interesting information about the history of Kyrgyzstan and all great events.
Soviet Rule (1917-1991). The period of 1917-1991 is known as the Soviet Rule, when there was the beginning of new period in the history of Kyrgyzstan with Bolsheviks conquering the Russian Empire and coming to power in 1917. This process was said to be started with an aim to create a country without exploitation and complete equality of people of whole Central Asia. The Soviet Union is considered to be the great flourishing of political, economic and cultural life of Kyrgyzstan. With the beginning of the period, there emerged the system of education: elementary, secondary and higher; development of cultural life and art - theater, cinema, poetry; development of scientific life. Bolsheviks created the system of autonomous republic, union republic. But anyway there were complications with local residents, and Atheization, Collectivization and Cultural Revolution created cases of murders of innocent people. Though the period of the Soviet Union passed and then Kyrgyzstan got independency.
Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991). Since 1991 there is a period of independent Kyrgyzstan, the period started from overthrow of Soviet powers. Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with national flag, emblem and anthem. There is a constitution in Kyrgyzstan, first was adopted in 1993. Kyrgyzstan became the part of the UN in March 1992. These times people of Kyrgyzstan were amazed by independency they had, but later there appeared unemployment. The development of political, economic and social crises began in Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan was considered the country of the term "island of instability" rather than "island of democracy".
Travelling in Kyrgyzstan you will find out that two revolutions took place in 2005 and 2010. Presidents were forcefully made to resign. But now it is safe in the country and tourists have great time here with car rent.
According to recent investigations Kyrgyzstan is considered to develop in frames of political stabilization, social and economic development, and cultural rise. It is known that Kyrgyzstan used to be presidential country, but in 2010 it switched to parliamentary system.
Kyrgyzstan has a history of great interest with a great variety of places to visit. Our managers are glad to organize a tour in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with your wishes and ideas. During tour in Kyrgyzstan you will listen to the history of the country and places you stay at. For more information about car rent contact our managers or have a look at our website. We wish you a good holiday and welcome you to sunny Kyrgyzstan!