History of Kyrgyzstan
Introduction. The history of Kyrgyzstan and the people of these places is extremely rich and fascinating as to tell for the introduction. The great attention should be paid to nomadic history of Kyrgyzstan and its people, when nomads did not build cities, towns and castles. For them the most important thing to do was not to disturb the pure natural landscape of Kyrgyzstan by creating buildings and monuments. The important part of their life was going from generation to generation orally, without written recording, only of events and changes in life happening on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan as well. The history of Kyrgyzstan and its people estimates the history of 2 000 years, the word "Kyrgyz" first was mentioned 201 B.C.
It is considered to be eight main periods of the history of Kyrgyzstan which you may perceive during tours in the country:
Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC). The development of culture and art is known as Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC) and it has marked the appearance of humans in the territory of nowadays Kyrgyzstan. One of the great examples of it is Rock Art Gallery in Cholpon Ata that is a spiritual center, visited by human of the ancient times during seasonal holidays and tours in Kyrgyzstan. There are more than 2 000 images, painted on stones and rocks. Petroglyphs show up animals like goats, bulls, horses, deers, camels, dogs alongside with people in the process of hunting, plowing, ritual dancing, animals with carts, labyrinths, erotic and other scenes, and anthropomorphic creatures.
Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD). First Chinese historian Sima Tan in his chronicles "Historical notes" mentioned the Kyrgyz people in 201 B.C as people conquered by the Hunnu and this period is known as Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD). Then in the 1st century B.C the next mentioning in Chinese chronicle Han-shu (History of Man) created by the historian Ban Gu, that gave the full description of the state of Kyrgyz. According to modern calculations, the base of such documents is the Eastern part of Turkestan.
Turkic Era (500-1200). Early Middle Ages from 6th to the 13th centuries are called the Turkic Era (500-1200) in the history of Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan due to the migration of Turkic speaking nomad tribes from the Altai Mountains to the region of Central Asia, in the process of establishing first Turkic dynasties. There is no any record about Kyrgyz people in Chinese sources during first six centuries A.D. The Kyrgyz Kaganate was established by the Kyrgyz people in the 7th century on the Middle Yenisey River in South Siberia. Barsbek ajo-king ruled during this time. In the period of 9-10th centuries the Kyrgyz from Yenisey built and stretched the empire from the river Irtysh in the west to the Big Khingan range in the east, from Angara and Selegna Rivers in the north to the Gobi Desert in the south. Russian and Soviet historian Barthold introduced the term Great Kyrgyz Empire.
The Mongol Rule (1200-1400). The 13th century is one of the most tragic periods in the history of Kyrgyzstan due to the invasion of Mongols and this period is known as The Mongol Rule (1200-1400). Genghis Khan created the army of Mongols. He conquered the territory of Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan and destroyed already developed Turkic culture. The Kyrgyz people went under the powers of Genghis Khan themselves, the rules of whom lasted for many centuries. Between 12th and 15th centuries the people started adopting the religion Islam, the religion of numerous Persian, Arab, and Turkic traders and warriors travelling in Kyrgyzstan along the Silk Road. But the process of converting Islam was rather long, that in 19th centuries there were cases of shamanistic traditions among people.
Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800). Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800) is the time when people started to be rather independent in Kyrgyzstan. To the present territory of Kyrgyzstan the people came from South Siberia, and the 15-19th centuries are the ones that are marked by the absence of statehood of Kyrgyz people. The reason is that there was the ethno-political system of two wings and center of many tribes. Tribes in Kyrgyzstan were independent as many of Greek city-states.
Russian Colonization (1770-1917). The process of taking Kyrgyzstan under the control of the Russian Empire, known as Russian Colonization (1770-1917), was going before the period of embassies sent the leaders to join Russian in order to protect themselves from outside and inner threats. The northern Kyrgyz tribes were forced to find protection for them and Kyrgyzstan in the face of the Russian Empire due to hostilities among the Kyrgyz people, threats from China, Koqand and Kazakhs. The peace joining of northern tribes of Kyrgyzstan was accompanied by forced joining of southern tribes in the result of colonization policy and war-like campaigns in Kyrgyzstan. The new territorial and administrative system was established on newly annexed territories of Kyrgyzstan. From this time agricultural economy started its existence.
Soviet Rule (1917-1991). Kyrgyzstan started a new period on the Bolsheviks coming to power and this is the period of Soviet Rule (1917-1991). The peoples of Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan supported the given idea of creating a socialistic society without exploitation, where everybody is equal. The period of the Soviet Union powers on the territory of Kyrgyzstan is the most fruitful concerning political, economic and cultural development. There was created the system of elementary, secondary and higher education, professional literature started its existence along with theatre, painting, cinema, science and the establishment of a large-scale heavy metal processing industry and machinery in Kyrgyzstan. People in Kyrgyzstan also created statehood as autonomous regions, then autonomous republic and a union republic was created thanks to Bolsheviks powers. Atheization, Collectivization and Cultural Revolution were leading to mass murders of innocent people in Kyrgyzstan.
Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991). The disintegration of the Soviet Union led to the independency of Kyrgyzstan since 1991. National flag, emblem and anthem were adopted as the attributes of the independent Kyrgyzstan. The constitution was taken in 1993, in 1992 Kyrgyzstan became the member of UN. But then there was the period mass unemployment rate, as the new adopted government faced great political, economic and social crisis. From this time Kyrgyzstan was no more the "country of democracy", but the "country of destabilization" and it was impossible to make tours in Kyrgyzstan of those times. The recent stabilization of our country led to the development of social and economic life. In 2010 Kyrgyzstan turned from presidential to parliamentary system. In 2017, there was a successful transition of power first in Central Asia was taken place.
During tours in Kyrgyzstan you will be given information about the history of the country along with the history of places of interest. We are glad to welcome you to Kyrgyzstan and suggest the highest service. Contact our managers and have an overwhelming and interesting tour in Kyrgyzstan!